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Table 1 Tissue standards ( italicized ) for vertebrate genomics corresponding to storage and quality of target materials (bolded)

From: Tissue sampling methods and standards for vertebrate genomics

  Four-star Three-star Two-star One-star
DNA quantity     
1 mg X X   
> 700 μg    X  
≤ 700 μg a     X
Target materials     
Cell lines/tissue culture X    
RNA X X   
DNA X X X X b
Specimen type c     
Live/freshly euthanized X d X   
Salvaged    X X
Voucher    X X
Storage     
RNAlater® X    
DNAgard/DNAstable® X    
≤ −130°C X    
≥ −80°C   X   
≥ −20°C    X  
Ethanol     X
  1. aSmaller quantities (30 to 100 μg) from multiple individuals of the same species will support light-coverage sequencing for single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery.
  2. bHigh-quality or slightly degraded DNA of small quantities will not likely be sufficient for whole-genome sequencing; these samples may supplement whole-genome sequencing efforts of higher-quality samples.
  3. cStandards will vary depending on tissue selection and natural history of the specimen.
  4. dFour-star samples should also include reference species for aligning de novo sequences of closely related species (see text for more details).